См.: причинно-следственная связь.
cause-effectcause-effect - A linkage or relationship between entities in which the existence of one (or more) entity(ies) is(are) said to be the reason for the existence of the other entity(ies). Causality is established if the stated effect always exists when the stated cause(s) is (are) present.
Perspective: In contrast to statistical correlation, causality represents a much stronger directional relationship between two entities than does their correlation or association with one another.
Illustration 1: The following logic diagram is verbalized: If 15 Cause A then 25 Effect X. For example, If 15 It rains on my yard then 25 My grass gets wet.
Illustration 2: Sometimes two or three causal entities are all needed to create the existence of the proposed effect. The following logic diagram is verbalized: If 20 Cause B and 30 Cause C then 60
Effect Y. For example, If 20 My vegetable garden gets ample water, and 30 My garden gets a satisfactory amount of sunshine, then 60 My vegetables grow well.